Category Archives: Objects

A rediscovered Senufo staff

Image courtesy of Anita J. Glaze, 1969.

Image courtesy of Anita J. Glaze, 1969.

In 1969, Anita J. Glaze took the above field-photo of a Senufo staff in Ivory Coast. It was published recently in Bernard de Grunne’s catalogue on the subject, Senufo Champion Cultivator Staffs – which is freely available online here (p. 32). Unfortunately no additional information about the place, owner or carver is mentioned.

Last week, the above staff was offered for sale at Sotheby’s Paris (info). Apparently the staff left Ivory Coast not long after Anita J. Glaze photographed it, since according to Sotheby’s it was already owned by Harvery T. Menist ca. 1968. Although the field-photo is a bit blurry, details such as the red fibers and presence of cowrie strings make it clear this is one and the same staff.

telafpitya senufo staff sotheby's anita glaze


I discovered two more staffs that are possibly carved by the same sculptor – only the angle between the upper and lower arm is different. A nice detail is how the carver omitted the two front legs of the stool the woman is sitting on, carving only the legs of the figure while maintaining the balance of the stool.


Left: published in Afrikanische Kunst. Düsseldorf: Galerie Simonis, n.d. & right: published in: Sotheby's, New York, 14 November 1995. Lot 64.

Left: published in Afrikanische Kunst. Düsseldorf: Galerie Simonis, n.d. & right: published in: Sotheby’s, New York, 14 November 1995. Lot 64.


ps the elaborate hairdo of the female figure crowning this staff in facts reflects an existing Senufo hairstyle – as can be seen on the beautiful field-photo below.


Senufo woman. Published in: Himmelheber (Hans), "Negerkunst und Negerkünstler", Braunschweig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1960:64, #53 (top left).

Senufo woman. Published in: Himmelheber (Hans), “Negerkunst und Negerkünstler”, Braunschweig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1960:64, #53 (top left).

African art made in the UK: the ‘Birmingham Bells’


Lower Niger River bells Forcados

Above two conical bells that depict human heads in a style that is generally identified as the ‘Lower Niger Bronze Industry’ (southern Nigeria). It may come as a surprise, but these were not made in Africa: identical in form and size (but not in alloy), they were cast from a mold in the UK. These bells can be identified by a seam where the two halves have been attached (as opposed to the seamless lost-wax method traditionally used in Nigeria).

In Where Gods and Mortals Meet – Continuity and Renewal in Urhobo art, Perkins Foss writes about these so-called ‘Birmingham Bells’ (p. 51):

John Picton recalls that he and William Fagg saw ‘bells with a stamped job number on the back’ at the British Museum in the 1970s, and that ‘unlike the regular Lower Niger River bells they were cast in piece molds, as evidenced by the seams along each side from top to bottom.

Fagg’s hypothesis was that enterprising English District Officer or trader might have seen such a bell on a Nigerian shrine and taken it to a UK foundry (Birmingham is only a suggestion of where they might have been made) to produce a series, then to test their sales-worthiness in the lower Niger region.

Presumably these replicas were made for sale or trade or as gifts in what is now southern Nigeria around 1900. Examples have later been documented in rituals among the Urhobo, Igbo and other groups, so some of them did end up on a shrine – and thus can in way be deemed ‘authentic’.


Birmingham Bells UK Nigeria copper bronze


These bells always have a stamped number on the lower back – you can zoom in by clicking on the above picture; it starts with ‘R’, followed by 199063. They weigh more than twice as much as the thinly cast authentic bells; made at a time when copper was still scarce. A couple of dozen of them are known and one of them even ended up in the collection of the Metropolitan (info, correctly listed as ‘made in England’). Christie’s even sold one in 2006 for € 3,360 (info). The present whereabouts of the original bell remain a mystery, but the Dallas Museum of Art holds one that is similar in style (info); as does the Smithsonian (here). The function of these bells remains unknown, but the imagery of the (abstract) snakes issuing from the nostrils can be associated with the Edo of the Benin Kingdom, the Yoruba, the Igbo and other groups in the region. Don’t hesitate to get in touch if you would have more information about them.


Lower Niger Nigeria copper bronze bell bells cloche

The Cleveland Museum of Art acquires an Igbo Ikenga figure

Image courtesy of the Cleveland Museum of Art.

Ikenga figure. Height: 73,5 cm. Image courtesy of the Cleveland Museum of Art.

Unlike their European counterparts, many US museums are still actively acquiring new objects to complete their (often relatively young) collections of African art. In many cases such purchases remain unnoticed, although sometimes there’s a press release to inform the public of a new acquisition. Last October, the Cleveland Museum of Art for example purchased an Igbo ikenga figure (info). The museum writes:

The Igbo constitute the largest ethnic group in southeastern Nigeria and their arts are among the country’s most varied and complex. The figure is a key example of an Igbo sculptural genre called ikenga. It depicts a man seated on a one-legged stool, holding a cutlass in one hand and a human skull turned upside down in the other. The ikenga would have been part of a shrine, where it would have received prayers and sacrifices in return for the ancestors’ support and guidance.

The figure wears an elaborate headdress comprised of two curving, interconnected horn-like extensions, with three projecting cone shapes on either side of the face. The horns, perhaps those of a ram, underline the male gender of the image. The figure’s forehead and temples are graced with parallel incisions imitating local scarification patterns known as ichi. The ichi scars signal that the sculpture represents a high-ranking member of one of the many Igbo male associations. The white color around the eyes, derived from chalk, signifies purity and protection, and refers to the benevolence of the spirits.

The ikenga figure is an important addition to the museum’s Nigerian holdings. It also adds a sculptural genre with widespread cultural connections, as it was shared by various different peoples across a vast geographic region.

Note that the fact that the figure is holding a decapitated head doesn’t mean the Igbo were headhunters (a story one often hears in the trade), this was more a symbol than an actual representation of a local custom. It is more reasonable to assume that it symbolizes courage, wit, bravery, material success and other achievement qualities, which raises the status of the owner.

The Cleveland Museum of Art bought the statue from a US dealer who had bought it in Paris in 2010 at the sale of the remainders of the Kerchache collection for only €10,000 (Pierre Bergé & Associates, Paris, “Collection Anne et Jacques Kerchache”, 13 June 2010. Lot 322). A bargain if you consider the quality of the statue and the fact that it was published in both Elsy Leuzinger’s Die Kunst von Schwarz-Afrika (p. 187, #M9) and Jacques Kerchache’s Art of Africa (p. 543, #930). After the sale it also got published in Herbert M. Cole’s Igbo book (Milan, 2013: pl. 9). Igbo art still remains under appreciated, but I’m happy to notice it’s getting the place it deserves in public collections.


UPDATE: Herbert M. Cole was so kind to respond to my statement about the meaning of the severed head; he writes:

The Igbo and several of their SE NIgerian neighbors WERE in fact headhunters, as evidenced in numerous headdresses featuring trophy heads, in ikoro slit gongs, and ikenga. Headhunting may have stopped by virtue of the pax brittanica, but it is well recorded in early accounts of this large area, and while the iconogrphy was sustained for symbolic reasons, it had it origin in warfare (even among Igbo subgroups, which were never unified). I see the upside-down head as an indication of doubled humiliation of enemy peoples whose head brings power to the captor’s community.

Oceanic art in the streets of Antwerp

Walter van Beirendonck bicycle bag duk duk Tolai PNG Bruno Claessens blog

In 2009, the Belgian fashion designer Walter van Beirendonck created a bicycle bag for a bicycle promotion campaign in Flanders. Ever since, one can spot these flashy bags on the streets of Antwerp. What no one realizes is that they were in fact inspired by the masks worn by members of the Duk-Duk secret society of the Tolai people of the Rabaul area of New Britain, the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. The motif of the spiral eyes of these masks was used by van Beirendonck in his Glow collection (Autumn/Winter 2009-10) after having seen a real duk duk mask at a gallery on the Sablon in Brussels. And that’s the reason why one can often spot an Oceanic motif in the streets of Antwerp 🙂

Duk-Duk Members, Papua New Guinea. Image courtesy of Maxwell R. Hayes, 1964.

Duk-Duk Members. Image courtesy of Maxwell R. Hayes, 1964.

A rediscovered Senufo figure from the Helena Rubinstein collection

Helena Rubinstein Senufo Paris 1951

An important momentum in the appreciation of African art was the sale of the Helena Rubinstein collection by Parke-Bernet Galleries Inc. in April 1966. The unprecedented prices paid for the objects from her collection would radically alter the commercial value of African art. Ever since, and even more since the 2014 exhibition dedicated to her (info here & here), objects coming from her collection have been highly sought after. Last weekend, one of them popped up in an small US estate auction. An attentive collector discovered it on the above interior photo and was able to acquire it at a fair price. A wonderful detail is that after being cherished so long by the most important female collector of the 20th century, it will now be treasured again by another female collector, a species of which there are far too few.

Senufo figure Ivory Coast Rubinstein 1966

A pair of Mbala figures reunited during BRUNEAF 2015

Mbala couple Julien Flak reunited

A nice story from BRUNEAF: Julien Flak was exhibiting a female Mbala figure (which he had recently bought at Sotheby’s – info), when a local private dealer remarked he possessed its male pendant. He went home to collect it and not long after the two figures were reunited after being separated for about half a century: the female figure had been in the US since the 1970s, while the male figure had left Congo much later. Note how the female figure is bigger than the male statue. Unfortunately the male figure had lost its penis. Julien Flak of course did not hesitate and was able to buy the figure. Of course we don’t know if the two figures in fact ever were used together (the patina does differ) – however, it is clear that they were made by the same sculptor. They did look happy to be together again.

ps during Parcours des Mondes 2013 I witnessed an even more important reunion, read all about it here.

Mbala Suku couple Congo Flak

Back Mbala figures Bruneaf Perls Galleries Patric Claes

African artists index

A quick service notice: I have created a special page on my website (here) grouping all my blog posts about African artists. ‘Masterhands’ unites my identifications of previously anonymous carvers, as well as posts about known sculptors and master sculptors or workshops established by other scholars. It is still a fairly short list, but in the long run I wish to create a substantial index of African artists on this page.

Note that Sotheby’s Paris will be selling a Teke figure by The Master of the wedge-shaped beard (who I identified in March) later this month; read all about it here. In French his pseudo-name translated into le Maître de la barbe cunéiforme.


Image courtesy of Sotheby's.

Image courtesy of Sotheby’s.

Objects of the day: Tellem lip plugs

Photo: Bruno Claessens. Image courtesy of the Blom  Collection, Switzerland.

Photo: Bruno Claessens. Image courtesy of the Blom Collection, Switzerland.

I was in Switzerland last week and had the pleasure to visit a private collection with a focus on art of the Dogon and Tellem from Mali. One type of objects I had never seen before were the above rock crystal lip plugs. These were found in Tellem caves, close to female neck rests and textiles. Their owner kindly allowed me to share these photos – I photographed the plugs on my hand to get a better idea of their size. It must have taken a long time to shape a piece of rock crystal like this (and a lot of accidental fractures of other examples). Note how one end of each lip plug is crowned by a piece of metal to make sure it would stay in place when being worn in the lower lip. It must have been a spectacular view. Unfortunately nothing is known about their function. Even more impressive were the two examples made in an unidentified type of stone illustrated below.

Photo: Bruno Claessens. Image courtesy of the Blom Collection, Switzerland.

Photo: Bruno Claessens. Image courtesy of the Blom Collection, Switzerland.

These characteristic lip plugs can often be found on wooden Dogon and Tellem statues, see for example the statue on the book cover below. This book, Dogon. Images & Traditions, was published by the owner of these lip plugs, Huib Blom, in 2010. The book summarizes more than 25 years of research and, including numerous beautiful black-and-white field-photos by the author himself, is highly recommended. If you mention my blog while ordering it here, you’ll get a € 20 discount.

Dogon images and traditions Huib Blom Tellem art

The Jay T. Last collection of Lega art at the Fowler available online

Image courtesy of the Fowler Museum at UCLA.

Image courtesy of the Fowler Museum at UCLA.

The Fowler Museum recently launched an online presentation of the collection of Lega art they received from Jay T. Last (info). You can find it here; if you click through you get each object’s details and a larger picture. Excellent study material now available for everyone. Some more info:

Art of the Lega: Meaning and Metaphor in Central Africa highlights the impressive collection of Lega art amassed by physicist Jay T. Last, who has generously donated these holdings to the Fowler Museum. When Dr. Last started collecting Lega art in 1962, his passion for aesthetics developed into a life-long pursuit of the meaning and history of the beautiful works he sought. In discussing his interests, Dr. Last has commented, “This linking of art with moral culture, the use of art objects to serve as a teaching and inspirational device during Lega ceremonies added a great deal of meaning to my collection.” By gifting his collection to the Fowler Museum, he ensures its access, study, and preservation for decades to come. Most works date to the 19th century and were collected during the 20th century. All the works are in the permanent collection of the Fowler Museum at UCLA, gift of Dr. Jay T. Last.

ps Jonathan Fogel wrote about the Jay T. Last collection in the Autumn 2013 issue of Tribal Art Magazine (here).

Auction surprise of the month: a Bembe figure from Congo Brazzaville

Bembe Congo Brazzaville

A new surprise at auction, in France this time, where the above Bembe figure (height: 14,5 cm) sold for € 117,800 (buyer’s premium included). It was estimated at € 12-18K and has no provenance. Compliments for the buyer because it is indeed a gem.

Raoul Lehuard in his magnus opus Art Bakongo. Les Centres de style classified this as style G-16, “a style in which Bembe art realized perfection” (1989, Vol. II, pp. 371-377). He eloquently writes: “Admirables d’élégance, de finesse et de préciosité, les productions de ce centre de style témoignent d’un art élaboré ayant abouti là à sa perfection mais, peut-être aussi, sa fin. Tant de raffinement et de délicatesse pourraient être l’opposite de l’archétype”.

This muscular style was later identified and attributed to the Bembe Gangala by Marc Felix (Art & Kongos, 1995: p. 199), north of Mindouli at the Loukoumi River. Another example in this style, held by the British Museum, below.

Image courtesy of the British Museum (14623).

Image courtesy of the British Museum (14623). Height: 14 cm.

At first glance, the result of this statue might seem remarkable, but it is in fact not that surprising. Thirteen years ago, in 2002, Sotheby’s NY already sold a statue in this style for $ 55,000 (pictured below). For now, it is the most expensive standing male Bembe figure ever sold at auction, but squatting Bembe figures have already passed the €100K mark for some years – Christie’s sold one in 2014 for €145K (info) and Sotheby’s sold one for €384K in 2007 (info).

Image courtesy of Sotheby's NY (16 November 2002. Lot 42.). Height: 19,7 cm.

Image courtesy of Sotheby’s NY (16 November 2002. Lot 42.). Height: 19,7 cm.

ps another gem in the same sale was the Kongo fly-whisk below. Mounted on an Inagaki base and estimated €3,5-5K, it sold for €20,460.

Kongo Flywhisk Inagaki base