I haven’t often touched on the subject of authenticity and fakes on this blog in the past, yet the above picture was too interesting not to share. It is an image of a “Mangbetu” vessel photographed by Lorenz Homberger fourteen years ago in Machutvi, Bamoum province, Cameroon. While this type of vessels originally was created a century ago in Northern Congo, this well-executed example was made by the Bamum potter Kotu Idrissou Mache! The potter was transparant enough to reveal the source of his work: a black&white picture copied from an old publication (which I was unable to identify). It is impressive to discover that such a small image was sufficient to create this elaborate copy – nonetheless, it explains why many such works often show mistakes in areas of which the craftsman did not have a picture (for example, the top of the head). Unfortunately the potter picked a later a-typical Mangbetu vessel as a model, with an European-style hat. Additionally, most of those original Mangbetu anthropomorphic vessels were already created to be sold to Western visitors – without having any local use, as described in “African Reflections” (Schildkrout, 1990). If the potter would have had a bit more market intel, he probably would have picked a different object. Yet, it is fascinating to study how these workshops in Cameroon respond to the demands of the art market. Caveat emptor!
After the Pernod advertisement, another liquor including African Art in an ad. Here we find the musician Herbie Hancock enjoying a glass of Chivas Regal with a collection of African Art in the background. I spot a janus Hemba kabeja statue, a Bembe statue from Congo Brazzaville, a Luba rattle, and a Gabonese Vuvi mask. Searching on the photographer’s name, Bobby Holland, I found two other images from the same photo session, see below. I haven’t been able to find out who’s house was used for the photo shoot, but I did discover that the big red Chokwe figure would later be sold by Bonhams, and once was in the Bronson collection (info).
Could it be Hancock’s private collection? He did use an image of a Baule mask for the famous cover of his Head Hunters album. Read more about his album art here.
One of the many fascinating stories highlighted in the new exhibition 100xCongo (curated by Els De Palmenaer, Keeper of the Africa collection MAS, in collaboration with Nadia Nsayi, co-curator representation) at the Antwerp MAS Museum is the first World Art Fair held in Antwerp in 1885. This fair presented the ideal occasion for Leopold II to promote his colonial projects in Congo. As with all World Fairs, industry and trade were the principal attractions, and the exhibition breathed the optimism of progress. All participating countries advertised their colonies; the Belgian pavilion displaying Congolese mineral resources, as well as art objects without much attention to their makers or function. To highlight the ‘work of civilisation’, a ‘human zoo’ was erected where 12 Congolese had to reenact daily life in a fictitious village – a forgotten shameful history the exhibition rightfully puts in the picture.
After the world fair, king Leopold II donated most of the art objects to the Leiden Ethnographic Museum in the Netherlands – as the Royal Museum for Central Africa did not exist yet! Another group of objects would be sold by the Antwerp firm F. & V. Claes in 1887. The exhibition shows an invoice from that year where the firm (not a true gallery in the current sense of the word) sells a group of objects to the Ethnographic Museum in Leiden. On the invoice we see they were specialised in the ‘Preparation and trade in natural specimens’ (‘Bereiding en handel van natuurkundige voorwerpen’). A bit similar to the Umlauff firm in Hamburg, one of their specialties indeed were stuffed animals. They also sold objects exhibited at the 1885 World Fair to the Berlin Museum, and would play an important role in the trade in African art up until the start of the 20th century. Frans Claes (1860-1933) would later become the curator of the Antwerp Vleeshuis Museum, and his private collection would be sold at auction after his death in 1933. I patiently await until a researcher explores the history of this pioneer dealers.
It is a fun coincidence that a century later, the brothers Didier and Alexandre Claes, while unrelated to Frans & Vincent, continue the tradition of their namesakes! And, if you were wondering, my name, Claessens, is just plural for Claes 🙂
Bargain for a beautiful Dan mask in the morning and enjoy a delicious martini in the evening.
How telling for that time period, that such a marketing slogan was considered enticing enough to get more people to fly to West Africa, preferably with Air Afrique.
After seeing the Estée Lauder and Pernod advertisements I posted before, the Boston-based gentleman-collector Lou Wells was kind enough to email me the above advertisement from Air Afrique from 1980. Funnily enough the drawing of the illustrated Dan mask was based on a published photo of a mask that Wells owned at the time (pictured in African Arts magazine, January 1977, X2). The illustrator clearly had no idea as he also included the stand of the mask picture in the below photo in his drawing.
You are looking at a rare Chokwe bird trap from Angola, held in the collection of the Horniman Museum in London (info). It is made from a soft wood for the frame, and strips of cane for the bars. Such a trap was composed of two compartments: the upper, with the deadfall lid (weighted with lumps of gum) and seed bait, and the lower, divided from upper by bars and provided with perch (where the live decoy bird would be).
The Chokwe expert Marie-Louise Bastin wrote about these dead-fall traps in 1961:
The Chokwe like to hear birds sing. So they keep the kasakala canary (Serinus mozambicus), a delicious singer, as a cagebird. The little cage, called cisakala (pl. yisakala) is rectangular, of vegetable matter, consisting of a frame and a fine interlocking lattice. They hang the cage with the little Mozambique canary in the shade among the trees, near houses, and feed it with its favourite seeds; on journeys they take it with them as a cheerful companion. All this was related by explorers during the last century, starting with Livingstone in 1873. It is thus that the most widespread Chokwe decorative motif is called maswi a yisakala, “net of cages”: a drawing with symmetrically crossing parallel lines, usually forming a diamond shape or adjacent diamonds. Maswi a yisakala is also the name given to a seed-like keloid tattoo which decorates men’s and women’s skins, in the form of a fine checkered embroidery (Bastin 1961, IV.c.d.7).
Below two examples of this motif. I’m sure you can easily find others yourself and hopefully will never look the same again at such decorations. As always in African art, everything refers to something, and we can only do our best to decipher these visual clues as good as we can.
Thanks to Guy van Rijn for the tip!
I recently came across this Estée Lauder advertisement from 1984 for their ‘Primitive Worlds’ make-up colors. We see a model posing in a museum-like setting with in the background a large Nafana bedu mask, a fragmentary Korewori spirit figure, an Abelam bark painting, a Vanuatu headdress, an Oro Province tapa from Papua New Guinea and a Fang ngil mask from Gabon. These objects and the model’s jewellery were on loan from the private collection of Maureen Zarember from Tambaran Gallery in New York.
With a bit of sleuthing I discovered the model for this campaign was Willow Bay, who Americans might recognise as she would later become a well-known television anchor of ABC, CNN and NBC, and now is married with the CEO of Disney, Bob Iger. She was a spokesperson for Estée Lauder cosmetics from 1983 to 1989. The photographer for the ‘Primitive Worlds’ campaign was Victor Skrebneski, who died earlier this year, and is most known for his fashion photography and his work for the ad campaigns of Estee Lauder. He and Bay collaborated on many shoots for the make-up company.
Update: Maureen Zarember was kind to react:
It was a 3 page color centre fold in the NYTimes Sunday magazine and other magazines. The other pages showed the model wearing my huge Nagaland necklace, and new cosmetic colors / lipstick same color as the necklace. It was really a daring add, I must have sold dozens of those big necklaces. Estée Lauder walked into my Madison Ave gallery and asked if she could use some of the Naga necklaces in her promotion, it just grew into something bigger. Today, companies hire an army to do that work, not Estée, she was so hands on and a pleasure to work with. Thanks Bruno. Maureen
Unfortunately only in French, but how wonderful to see Jacques Kerchache (1942-2001) presenting his new book “L’Art africain” on French television in 1988 – see below, or click this link (the interview starts at 08:44). This publication would become a reference book on the subject, and is still consulted by all professionals in our field – so it’s very charming to see Kerchache, who was responsible for the selection, present it.
After the book presentation, three objects are highlighted in detail in the television studio: an incredible Mumuye statue, a janus Fon figure from the Republic of Benin, and an ivory Woyo staff finial from D.R. Congo. As Kerchache played a big role in the discovery and promotion of the art of the Mumuye, it is special to look at this statue together with him.
Kerchache jokes “Watch out ! It’s dangerous” when the host touches this Fon statue 🙂
At the end of the interview Kerchache informs about his plans to bring African and Oceanic Art into the Louvre – a mission he would later accomplish successfully!
A reader of this blog was kind enough to mail me this (now historical) image of South African Ndebele designs gracing the livery of a British Airways Boeing 747 in the late 1990s. The twin sisters Emmly and Martha Masanabo from the village of Wolwekraai in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa each got to paint a livery as part of a re-branding operation of British Airways to appear more ‘global and caring’. The campaign wasn’t received as positive as expected, and already a few years (and £60M) later British Airways would return to the Union Flag to decorate its tail fins – you can read the full story here.
The women of the Ndebele people of Southern African indeed are famed for having developed this highly original, colourful and vibrant design style. Every four years it is traditional for them to replaster the outside walls of their homes and paint on them bold geometric patterns, using images drawn from Ndebele beadwork, which featured intricate designs in coloured beads.
Earlier this year, the Brussels-Based Galerie Mestdagh organised an exhibition with works on paper by two other Ndebele artists, Francine Ndimande and her daughter Angelina. On the instigation of the famed Belgian dealer Alain Guisson (who left us too early last year), they transferred their traditional paintings to paper a few years before the British Airways campaign. A selection of these vibrant works was exhibited at the Mestdagh gallery. You can download their catalog and read the full story here.
I recently came across this cool liquor bottle from the Morey distillery based in Binissalem, Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Its black ceramic bottle clearly was inspired by African statues, and vaguely reminds of some Baule and/or Luba figures. This Spanish liquor was branded as ‘the sorcerer drink’ (El trago hechicero). Unfortunately I’ve never tasted it, so I can’t write about the special powers of this potion. The box also included a great promotional keychain as an extra gift, or talisman if you want.
A true collector’s item. The box is pretty cool too, with at its side the stylised drawing of a Sepik mask from Papua New Guinea. I couldn’t discover when exactly these were produced, but probably it can be placed within the context of the Tiki culture of the 1940s and 1950s.